Power failure throughout vast areas of Guizhou affected oil pipeline transportation in the southeast, threatened the market supply of gasoline in Guizhou and Yunnan, and supplies of gas used in production were restricted or even stopped in some areas. For the highway system in Yungui Plateau, the road foundation and side slope of some sections collapsed and various main highways in the disaster area were closed due to freezing. Provinces on the Yungui Plateau, Guizhou, and Yunnan, suffered most.
Grapes, vegetables, mandarin oranges and other commercial crops were severely affected by the cold. Water resource facilities, irrigation and waterlog discharging canal system facilities, dikes, reservoirs, culverts, and water gates around the countryside were seriously damaged. Moreover, the most affected forest zones were the areas which had the best forest resources.
The disaster distressed not only the local forestry business but it also greatly impeded ecological re-construction activities implemented by the central government more than ten years ago. Most of the ecological systems in secondary forests were destroyed and the ecosystems in artificial forests were completely destroyed.
Wild animals also suffered extensive impacts, wherein, some threatened and endangered species of animals, for example, musk deer, in several natural forests were almost close to extinction locally.
- معلومات عن المنتج.
- Towards integrated disaster risk management: Case studies and trends from Asia.
- Science Plan and Case Studies of Large-scale Disasters.
- Aphid Ecology An optimization approach.
Television transmission stations and networks were damaged, resulting in transmission interruption in rural and urban areas. The disaster losses across the Yungui Plateau were greatly amplified by the complex topography, landscape, and multiple meteorological phenomena. Sleet lasting for days accumulates and ice rapidly forms on all infrastructures.
CHAPTER 1 - INCORPORATING NATURAL HAZARD MANAGEMENT INTO THE DEVELOPMENT PLANNING PROCESS
During this disaster, major blackouts occurred, affecting lifelines including railways, roads, electric power lines, communication systems, and water and gas supply systems. This directly reflects weaknesses in infrastructure in these locations, such as construction and maintenance standards of power and water supplies as well as limitations of transportation routes. In this case of engineering systems, the local knowledge on extreme weather and climate has not been considered. That reflects the marginalization in that local peoples could assist with larger-scale planning, but they are not necessarily consulted and their cultural knowledge is not necessarily taken into account.
Counting the number of trees being planted was the only index for assessing the success of reforestation. As a result, not only is forest productivity in the Yungui Plateau low, but also its hazard-resisting ability is weak due to insufficient funds for planning, managing, and maintaining efforts. Examples of hazards affecting the forests are insects, disease, invasive species, wildfire, and drought.
The forest damage from this cold weather disaster also demonstrates the problems, suggesting that the disaster impacts were amplified by ecosystem vulnerability that was created artificially. For example, in the Yungui Plateau, the speed of development and the rate of maintaining national and provincial highways lags far behind the number of vehicles increasing in the region. Few efforts are put into reducing the number of private vehicles while providing viable alternatives. The railway transportation capacity is extremely limited during the holiday season of the Chinese Spring Festival.
As a result, as the scope of the disaster became clearer, local capacity was insufficient to deal with the problems and external help could not be delivered due to the clogged roads, railways, and airports. In this instance, remoteness contributed to vulnerability because remoteness was permitted to create marginalization. These lessons are being applied to improve disaster risk reduction in the area. For example, for post-disaster reconstruction of forest ecosystems, it is important not only to improve the disaster-resistant abilities of the forest ecosystem by optimizing the configuration of different kinds of trees, but also to initiate more efforts in developing the forest disaster insurance system.
Before the disaster, most development plans in the region were designed and implemented with few considerations on dealing with unprecedented extreme weather events, climate and other natural hazards. For example, the collapse of power lines has been identified as the leading cause of chaos during the early stages of the Great Ice Storm Disaster National Development and Reform Commission, ; Shi et al.
Publications, previous to CoeGSS but relevant for the project
The lack of construction standards applied when building the power infrastructure, which should be specifically designed for the region, is the major cause for the collapse. During the disaster, the China Meteorological Administration issued relatively accurate forecasts in the east coast areas with better observation networks. In the Yungui Plateau, limited by the monitoring capacity and scientific knowledge, the formation mechanism and possible consequences of the weather experienced was not well understood.
Moreover, the interaction between geological and climatic events was not well documented or considered in emergency planning. Local people should be engaged in knowledge sharing and training support on their own terms so they can raise their own risk consciousness and self-help in ways that they support for themselves. It is understood that in order to cope with weather and climate extremes efficiently and effectively and with a high degree of maneuverability and coordination, building local capacity so that people can help themselves is key Lewis, ; Wisner et al.
They also indicate the strong possibility for using local capacity to try to overcome the challenges faced. The weather made transportation to the location very difficult. Yet the specific hazard parameters, while extreme, were still survivable without major suffering if the local people and systems were ready to deal with them and if the infrastructure, ecology, and social systems had been built up to deal with them.
Because that was not the case, a disaster happened.
As such, while marginalization might be difficult to overcome, since that requires changes in external viewpoints, marginalization does not necessarily need to create vulnerability. Locals in the areas can accept the marginalization and take control of their own disaster risk reduction through integrated risk governance in order to ensure that extreme weather events do not become a disaster.
Due to inherent complexities in disasters, especially at larger scales, new multi-scale, multi-actor, cross-sector measures are required to meet new challenges in order to reduce human, economic, and environmental losses. The Ice-Snow Storm Disaster provided a great learning opportunity for national and local policy and decision makers, the scientific research community, business sectors, and the general public to reevaluate the current development pathway being undertaken in this mountainous region, especially regarding reducing disaster vulnerability.
No notes for slide. Standard of Large-scale Disaster Classification Notes: 1 The standard for different disaster grades shall meet any two of the items for the index; 2 Dead population includes the population killed and population missing for more than 1 month; 3 The direct property loss means the value of properties actually damaged in the year due to the disaster; 4 Disaster area refers to the disaster area with human casualties or property loss or damaged ecological system due to the disaster.
Wenchuan Earthquake, Disaster risk sharing mechanism according to disaster intensity The large-scale Disaster Insurance Mode Small disaster risk relies on community government Medium-scale disaster risk relies on local government governance Larger disaster risk must be shared by central government, local governments, policyholders, insurers and reinsurers. LSDR needs the cooperation of the central government, policyholders, insurers, reinsurers, and international financial institutes Peijun SHI , et al , Discussion Integration of both top-down and bottom-up governance in transition-in and transition-out of LSD risk China How do we transform from resilient country and vulnerable community to resilient country and community of LSD risk in China?
The National Preparedness System must be dynamic, flexible, and responsive to new developments. You just clipped your first slide! Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.
Now customize the name of a clipboard to store your clips. Visibility Others can see my Clipboard. Cancel Save. In the last three years, there have been three large tsunamis in the Indian Ocean, most notably the In offering a wealth of geographic and climatic data from Africa, this book provides the basis for comparison between various African regions, and between Africa and other continents, for such topics as rural development, agriculture, and ecosystems.
Integrated Risk Governance: Science Plan and Case Studies of Large-scale Disasters
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